Dreamtattoo Kalıcı Dövme (Tattoo) & Piercing Kadıköy İstanbul

TATTOO

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) (disambiguation).

A tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) is a mark made by inserting pigment into the skin; in technical terms, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing is dermal pigmentation. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s may be made on human or animal skin. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s on humans are a type of body modification, while tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s on animals are most commonly used for identification.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing has been practiced worldwide. The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, wore facial tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing was widespread among Polynesian peoples, and among certain tribal groups in the Philippines, Borneo, Africa, North America,South America, Mesoamerica, Europe, Japan, Cambodia and China. Despite some taboos surrounding tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing, the art continues to be popular all over the world.

Terms

It is commonly believed that the original root word of 'tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)' comes from the Samoan or the Tahitian word tatau, meaning to mark or strike twice (the latter referring to traditional methods of applying the designs). The first syllable "ta", meaning "hand", is repeated twice as an onomatopoeic reference to the repetitive nature of the action, and the final syllable "U" translates to "color". The instrument used to pierce the skin in Polynesian tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing is called a hahau, the syllable "ha" meaning to "strike or pierce". (This is not to be confused with the origins of the word for the military drumbeat — see military tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul).)

The first closest known usage of the word in English was recorded in the diary of Captain James Cook in 1769 during his voyage to the Marquesas Islands. The text reads, “...they print signs on people’s body and call this tattaw”, referring to the Polynesian customs. Sailors on the voyage later introduced both the word and the concept of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing to Europe.

In Japanese the word used for traditional designs or those that are applied using traditional methods is irezumi ("insertion of ink"), while "tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)" is used for non-Japanese designs.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) enthusiasts may refer to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s as tats, ink, art, or work, and to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists as artists. The latter usage is gaining greater support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) designs and photographs of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) designs that are mass-produced and sold to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artists and studios and displayed in shop are known as flash.

History

Main article: History of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing has been a Eurasian practice at least since Neolithic times. Mummies bearing tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s and dating from the end of the second millennium BC have been discovered at Pazyryk on the Ukok Plateau. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in Japan is thought to go back to the Paleolithic era, some ten thousand years ago. Various other cultures have had their own tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) traditions, ranging from rubbing cuts and other wounds with ashes, to hand-pricking the skin to insert dyes.

Purpose

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing is a tradition with several indigenous peoples around the world.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s have served as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, punishment, amulets and talismans, protection, and as the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts.

Today, people choose to be tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed for cosmetic, religious and magical reasons, and as a symbol of belonging to or identification with particular groups (see Criminal tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s). tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s of favorite bands and football teams' logos are fairly common in the west. Some Maori still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. In Cambodia and Thailand, the yantra tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) is used for protection.

People have also been forcibly tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed for a various reasons. The best known is the ka-tzetnik identification system for Jews in part of the concentration camps during the Holocaust. European sailors were known to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) the crucifixion on their backs to prevent flogging (since it was a crime to deface an image of Christ).

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are also placed on animals, though very rarely for decorative reasons. Pets, show animals, thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed with identification and other marks. Pet dogs and cats are often tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed with a serial number (usually in the ear, or on the inner thigh) via which their owners can be identified. In Australia, the symbol ? is tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed in the ears of cats and dogs to indicate that they have been spayed or neutered. Also, animals are occasionally tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed to prevent sunburn (on the nose, for example). Such tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are often performed by a veterinarian and in most cases the animals are anaesthetized during the process. Branding is used for similar reasons and is often performed without anaesthesia, but is different from tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing as no ink or dye is inserted during the process.

When used as a form of cosmetics, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing includes permanent makeup, and hiding or neutralize skin discolorations. Permanent makeup are tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s that enhance eyebrows, lips (liner or lipstick), eyes (liner), and even moles, usually with natural colors as the designs are intended to resemble makeup.

Prevalence

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s have experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades in many parts of the world, particularly in North America, Japan, and Europe. The growth in tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) culture has seen an influx of new artists into the industry, many of whom have technical and fine art training. Coupled with advancements in tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) pigments and the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing, this has led to an improvement in the quality of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s being produced. Movie stars, models, popular musicians and sports figures are just some of the people in the public eye who are tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed, which in turn has fueled the acceptance of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. During the 2000s, the presence of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s became evident within pop culture, inspiring television shows such as A&E's Inked and TLC's Miami Ink. The decoration of blues singer Janis Joplin with a wristlet and a small heart on her left breast, by the San Francisco tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artist Lyle Tuttle, is taken as a seminal moment in the popular acceptance of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s as art..

Lower back tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, or tramp stamps, are more common among young women.

In many traditional cultures tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing has also enjoyed a resurgence, partially in deference to cultural heritage. Historically, a decline in traditional tribal tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in Europe occurred with the spread of Christianity. A decline often occurred in other cultures following European efforts to convert aboriginal and indigenous people to Western religious and cultural practices that held tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing to be a "pagan" or "heathen" activity. Within some traditional indigenous cultures, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing takes place within the context of a rite of passage between adolescence and adulthood.

A poll conducted online between July 14 and 20, 2003 (Harris 2003), found that 16% of all adults in the United States have at least one tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul). The highest incidence of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s was found among the gay, lesbian and bisexual population (31%) and among Americans ages 25 to 29 years (36%) and 30 to 39 years (28%). Regionally, people living in the West (20%) were more likely to have tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. Democrats were more likely to have tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s (18%) than Republicans (14%) and Independents (12%); approximately equal percentages of males (16%) and females (15%) have tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s.

Negative associations

Secular attitudes

Conspicuous tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s and other body modification can make gainful employment difficult in a great deal of fields
Although in some walks of life, they are not a burden. Head tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) on office manager, three months healed.

Some employers, especially in professional fields, still look down on tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s or regard them as contributing to an unprofessional appearance. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s can therefore impair a wearer's career prospects, particularly when inked on places not typically covered by clothing, such as the hands, neck or face. It is not unusual for tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artists to refuse to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) these very conspicuous areas.

In some cultures, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s still have negative associations despite their increasing popularity, and are generally associated with criminality in the public's mind; therefore those who choose to be tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed in such countries usually keep their tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s covered for fear of reprisal. For example, many businesses such as gyms, hot springs and recreational facilities in Japan still ban people with visible tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, in part because of their association in the popular imagination with the yakuza, or Japanese mafia. In Western cultures as well, some dress codes specify that tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s must be covered.

According to popular belief, most triad members in Hong Kong have a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) of a black dragon on the left biceps and one of a white tiger on the right; in fact, many people in Hong Kong use "left a black dragon, right a white tiger" as a euphemism for a triad member. It is widely believed that one of the initiation rites in becoming a triad member is silently withstanding the pain of receiving a large tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) in one sitting, usually performed in the traditional "hand-poked" style. One reason the Chinese associate tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s with criminals is because historically criminals who were released from prison for minor crimes were given distinctive tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s on some easily notice part of their body as a "warning sign" to other people.

In the United States many prisoners and criminal gangs use distinctive tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s to indicate facts about their criminal behavior, prison sentences, and organizational affiliation. This cultural use of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s predates the widespread popularity of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s in the general population, so older people may still associate tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s with criminality. At the same time, members of the U.S. military have an equally established and longstanding history of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing to indicate military units, battles, etc., and this association is also widespread among older Americans. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing is also widespread in the British Armed Forces.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s can have additional negative associations for women; "tramp stamp" and other similarly derogatory slang phrases are sometimes used to describe a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) on a woman's lower back. The prevalence of women in the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) industry itself, along with larger numbers of women wearing tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, has somewhat changed these perceptions.

Slang within the industry is not limited to women's tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s.tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artists traditionally refer to a small bikini line tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) as a "tramp stamp", and the larger lower back pieces as "ass antlers". Tiny, interlocking tribal armbands are often referred to as "tribble", and unskilled artists are referred to as "scab merchants", or "scar vendors", originally according to Sailor Jerry. Slang and jargon within the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) industry evolves as quickly as customer's tastes change.

Abrahamic religious prohibitions

Main article: History of tattooing (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)

Some followers of Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—feel that their religious doctrine proscribes or constrains tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s among followers, or has other religious significances.

Procedure

Modern tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) machine in use: here outfitted with a 5-needle setup, but number of needles depends on size and shading desired

Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents; some cultures continue this practice, which may be an adjunct to scarification. Some cultures create tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones or, in modern times, needles. Traditional Japanese tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s (irezumi) are still "hand-poked," that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel.

The most common method of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in modern times is the electric tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) machine, which inserts ink into the skin via a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit. The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to 150 times a second.

The modern electric tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) machine is far removed from the machine invented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891. O'Reilly's machine was based on the rotary technology of the electric engraving device invented by Thomas Edison. Modern tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) machines use electromagnetic coils. The first coil machine was patented by Thomas Riley in London, 1891 using a single coil. The first twin coil machine, the predecessor of the modern configuration, was invented by another Englishman, Alfred Charles South of London, in 1899.

"Natural" tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s

According to George Orwell, coal miners could develop characteristic tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s owing to coal dust getting into wounds. This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. Similarly, a traumatic tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several different layers of skin, and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. In addition, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing of the gingiva from implantation of amalgam particles during dental filling placement and removal is possible and not uncommon. A common example of such accidental tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin.

Dyes and pigments

A wide range of dyes and pigments can be used in tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, from inorganic materials like titanium dioxide and iron oxides to carbon black, azo dyes, and acridine, quinoline, phthalocyanine and naphthol derivates, dyes made from ash, and other mixtures.

Iron oxide pigments are used in greater extent in cosmetic tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing. Many pigments were found to be used in a survey of professional tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists. Recently, a blacklight-reactive tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) ink using PMMA microcapsules has surfaced. The technical name is BIOMETRIX System-1000, and is marketed under the name "Chameleon tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Ink".

Studio hygiene

The properly equipped tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, sharps containers for old needles, and anautoclave for sterilizing tools. Studios are also required by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water.

Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil, between clients, and at any other time where cross contamination can occur. The use of single use disposable gloves is also mandatory. In some states and countries it is illegal to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) a minor even with parental consent, and it is usually not allowed to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) impaired persons, people with contraindicated skin conditions, those who are pregnant or nursing, or those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity. Before the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing begins the client is asked to approve the position of the applied stencil. After approval is given the artist will open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies, and fresh ink for each session (loaded into disposable ink caps which are discarded after each client). Also, all areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved (such as countertops, machines, and furniture) will be wiped with an approved disinfectant.

Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, generally helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. However, many of the most notable tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists do not belong to any association. While specific requirements to become a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ist vary between jurisdictions, many mandate only formal training in bloodborne pathogens, and cross contamination. The local department of health regulates tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) studios in many jurisdictions.

For example, according to the health department in Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. Performing a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is considered a felony offense. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing was legalized in New York City, Massachusetts, and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2006.

The time it takes to get a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) varies with size and complexity. A smaller tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) done by machine may take fifteen minutes; another might take hundreds of hours or multiple sessions. Prices vary widely for this service globally and locally, depending on demand, experience of the artist, regulatory fees, and local economy.

Aftercare

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artists, and people with tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, vary widely in preferred methods of caring for new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. Some artists recommend keeping a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) wrapped for the first twenty-four hours, others suggest removing temporary bandaging after a few hours. Many western tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists advise against allowing too much contact with water for the first few days; in Japan, in contrast, a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) is often bathed in very hot water early and often.

General consensus for care advises against removing the scab that forms on a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) and avoiding exposing tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s to the sun for extended periods, which can contribute to fading. Various products may be recommended for application to the skin, ranging from those intended for the treatment of cuts, burns and scrapes, to petroleum jelly or lanolin. In recent years, specific commercial products have been developed for tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) aftercare. In other cases, the client will be advised to use no products on a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul). A properly applied tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) will heal as well no matter the aftercare, as long as infection is avoided.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) removal

While tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are considered permanent, it is possible, to varying degrees, to remove them. Complete removal, however, is often not possible, and the expense and pain of removing them typically will be greater than the expense and pain of applying them. Some jurisdictions will pay for the voluntary removal of gang tattoos (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul).

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) removal is most commonly performed using lasers that react with the ink in the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul), and break it down. The broken-down ink is then absorbed by the body, mimicking the natural fading that time or sun exposure would create. This technique often requires many repeated visits to remove even a small tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul), and may result in permanent scarring. The newer Q-switched lasers are said by the National Institute of Health to result in scarring only rarely, however, and are usually used only after a topical anaesthetic has been applied. The NIH recognizes five types of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul); amateur, professional, cosmetic, medical, and traumatic (or natural). Amateur tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are easier and quicker to remove, usually, than professional tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. Areas with thin skin will be more likely to scar than thicker-skinned areas. There are several types of Q-switched lasers, and each is effective at removing a different range of the color spectrum.

Some wearers opt to cover an unwanted tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) with a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul). This is commonly known as a cover-up. An artfully done cover-up may render the old tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) completely invisible, though this will depend largely on the size, style, colours and techniques used on the old tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul). Some shops and artists use laser removal machines to break down and lighten undesired tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s to make coverage with a new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) easier. Since tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) ink is translucent, covering up a previous tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) necessitates darker tones in the new tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) to effectively hide the older, unwanted piece.

Health risks

Modern tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) artist's latex gloves and sterilized equipment.

Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing may carry health risks, including infection and allergic reactions. In the United States, for example, a person who receives a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) will generally be prohibited from donating blood for 12 months (FDA 2000), unless the procedure was done in a state-regulated and licensed studio, using sterile technique (Red Cross,2006). Most studios that are eligible can provide vouchers.

Modern western tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ers reduce such risks by following universal precautions, working with single-use items, and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists have bloodborne pathogen training, such as is provided through the Red Cross and OSHA.

Infection

Since tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) instruments come in contact with blood and bodily fluids, diseases may be transmitted if the instruments are used on more than one person without being sterilized. However, infection from tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in clean and modern tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) studios employing single-use needles is rare. In amateur tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, such as those applied in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection. To address this problem, a program was introduced in Canada as of the summer of 2005 that provides legal tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in prisons, both to reduce health risks and to provide inmates with a marketable skill. Inmates were to be trained to staff and operate the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) parlors once six of them open successfully.

Infections that could be transmitted via the use of unsterilized tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) equipment include surface infections of the skin, herpes simplex virus, tetanus, staph, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis, and HIV. No person in the United States is reported to have contracted HIV via a commercially-applied tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing process. Washington state's OSHA studies have suggested that since the needles used in tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing are not hollow, in the case of a needle stick injury the amount of fluids transmitted may be small enough that HIV would be difficult to transmit. Tetanus risk is prevented by having an up-to-date tetanus booster prior to being tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ed. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that no data exist in the United States indicating that persons with exposures to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing alone are at increased risk for HCV infection. In 2006, the CDC reported 3 clusters with 44 cases of methicillin-resistant staph infection traced to unlicensed tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ists (MMWR 55(24)). One should not consume alcohol directly before or after getting a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul). Not only does it weaken the body’s ability to deal with physical stress, alcohol thins the blood, causing more bleeding during the procedure.

Allergic reactions

Allergic reactions to tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) pigments are uncommon except for certain brands of red and green. People who are sensitive or allergic to certain metals may react to pigments in the skin with swelling and/or itching, and/or oozing of clear fluid called sebum. Such reactions are quite rare, however, and some artists will recommend performing a test patch.

For those who are allergic to latex, many artists are using non-latex or will use non-latex gloves if asked.

There is also a small risk of anaphylactic shock (hypersensitive reaction) in those who are susceptible, but the chance of a health risk is small.

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Inks

Although the FDA technically requires premarket approval of inks; because of limited resources, it has not actually approved the use of any ink for tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. As of 2004 they do perform studies to determine if the contents are possibly dangerous, and follow up with legal action if they find them to have disallowed contents including traces of heavy metals or other carcinogenic materials (see CA lawsuit). The first known study to characterize the composition of these inks was started in 2005 at Northern Arizona University (Finley-Jones and Wagner). The FDA expects local authorities to legislate and test tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks and inks made for the use of permanent cosmetics. In California, the state prohibits certain ingredients and pursues companies who fail to notify the consumer of the contents of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks. Recently, the state of California sued nine ink manufacturers, requiring them to more adequately label their products.

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic) ground down to an average diameter of slightly less than 1 micron is used as the colorant in some tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks. The tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks that use ABS result in very vivid tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s which is the most obvious indicator that the ink contains ABS, as tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks that contain ABS rarely if ever list their ingredients.

There has been concern expressed about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks, some of which contain trace metals. Allegedly, the magnetic fields produced by MRI machines could interact with these metal particles, potentially causing burns or distortions in the image. The television show MythBusters tested the theory, and found no interaction between tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks and MRI.

However, research by Shellock and Crues reports adverse reactions to MRI and tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s in a very small number of cases. Wagle and Smith also documented an isolated case of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)-Induced Skin Burn During MR Imaging. The person in the case had a dark, concentrated, loop-shaped tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul), which the authors speculate could have acted as an RF (radio frequency) pick-up; they also note that this is the first such case they encountered in "thousands of MRI studies". Ratnapalan et al. report another case where an MRI could not be completed due to the patient's extensive tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. According to the American Chemical society, home-made tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, in which metallic inks have been used in larger quantities, cause these reactions.

Temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s

Temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are not true tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, rather, they are a type of body sticker, similar to a decal. They are generally applied to the skin using water to temporarily transfer the design to the surface of the skin. Temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are waterproof, but can be removed with oil-based creams, and are intended to last only a few days.

Magician Penn Jillette (of Penn & Teller fame) writes in his book "Penn & Teller's How to Play in Traffic" that he had a special tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) made on his arm that used no pigment (The tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) machine was run without ink). Penn states that the tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) left a red scar that had a discernable pattern, but would heal to near invisibility after five or six years.

Other forms of temporary "tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s" are henna tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, also known as Mehndi, and the marks made by the stains of silver nitrate on the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light. Both methods, silver nitrate and henna, can take up to two weeks to fade from the skin.

Airbrush tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are another popular form of temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s. This process involves using a stencil design and spraying paint through the stencil onto the skin. This form of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) lasts approximately a week and is said to be the more realistic type available today.

The original form of temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, usually found in bubble gum, were an ink transfer that often made the image look blurry and would come off with water contact. Today's temporary tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s use vegetable dyes and a layer of glue similar to what is found in a Band-Aid. These tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s can look extremely realistic and last up to 3 weeks.

Forensics

tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s are sometimes used by forensic pathologists to help them identify burned, putrefied, or mutilated bodies. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) pigment is deep enough in the skin that even severe burns will often not destroy a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul).

Notes

  1. Deb Acord "Who knew: Mommy has a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)", Maine Sunday Telegram Nov. 19, 2006
  2. Oregon state health dept. - http://www.oregon.gov/OHLA/links.shtml

References

Anthropological

  • Comparative study about Ötzi's therapeutic tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s (L. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract)
  • Fisher, Jill A. 2002. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing the Body, Marking Culture. Body & Society 8 (4): 91-107.
  • PhD Thesis on body-marking in Antiquity (L. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract)
  • Marked for Life: Jews and tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s (Shaun Raviv, June 2006, Moment Magazine).
  • Buckland, A. W.: „On tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing“, in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1887/12, p. 318-328.
  • Caplan, Jane ed.: Written on the Body: The tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) in European and American History, Princeton 2000.
  • DeMello, Margo: Bodies of Inscription: A Cultural History of the Modern tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Community, California – Duke University Press 2000.
  • Gell, Alfred: Wrapping in Images: tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in Polynesia, Oxford – Clarendon Press 1993.
  • Gilbert, Stephen G.: tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) History. A Source Book, New York – Juno Books 2001.
  • Gustafson, Mark: „Inscripta in fronte - Penal tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing in Late Antiquity“, in Classical Antiquity, April 1997, Vol. 16/No. 1, p. 79-105.
  • Hambly, Wilfrid Dyson: The History of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing and Its Significance: With Some Account of Other Forms of Corporal Marking, London - H. F.& G. Witherby 1925 (Detroit 1974).
  • Jelski, Andrzej: Tatuaz, Warszawa – Wydawnictwo Alfa 1993 (Polish).
  • Joest, Wilhelm: Tätowiren, Narbenzeichnen und Körperbemalen: Ein Beitrage zur vergleichenden Ethnologie, Leipzig/Berlin 1887 (German).
  • Jones, C. P.: „Stigma: tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing and Branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity“, in Journal of Roman Studies, 77/1987, s. 139-155.
  • Keimer, Ludwig: Remarques sur le Tatouage dans l´Egypte ancienne, Le Caire – Imprimerie de L´Institut Francais D´Archéologie orientale 1948 (French).
  • Lombroso, Cesare: „The Savage Origin of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing“, in Popular Science Monthly, Vol. IV., 1896.
  • Rubin, Arnold ed.: Marks of Civilization. Artistic Transformations of the Human Body, Los Angeles – UCLA Museum of Cultural History 1988.
  • Rychlík, Martin: Tetování, skarifikace a jiné zdobení tela, Prague - NLN 2005 (Czech).
  • Sanders, Clinton R.: Customizing the Body. The Art and Culture of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing, Philadelphia – Temple University Press 1989.
  • Sinclair, A.T.: „tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing of the North American Indians“, in American Anthropologist 1909/11, No. 3, p. 362-400.

Popular and artistic

  • Harris Interactive. A Third of Americans With tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s Say They Make Them Feel More Sexy. The Harris Poll #58, October 8, 2003. Retrieved on August 22, 2006.
  • Ink: The Not-Just-Skin-Deep Guide to Getting a tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Terisa Green, ISBN 0-451-21514-1
  • The tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Encyclopedia: A Guide to Choosing Your tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Terisa Green, ISBN 0-7432-2329-2
  • Total tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Book Amy Krakow, ISBN 0-446-67001-4

Medical

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC's Position on tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing and HCV Infection. Retrieved on June 12, 2006.
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s and Permanent Makeup. CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors (2000; updated [2004, 2006]). Retrieved on June 12, 2006.
  • Haley Finley-Jones, Leslie D. Wagner, and Jani C. Ingram. In the flesh: Chemical characterization of tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) inks. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved on June 13, 2006 ].
  • Haley R.W. and Fischer R.P., Commercial tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)ing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection, Medicine, March 2000;80:134-151
  • Mayo Clinic. tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s and piercings: What to know beforehand. Mayo Clinc.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections Among tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) Recipients --- Ohio, Kentucky, and Vermont, 2004--2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(24);677-679. Retrieved on June 23, 2006.
  • MR Safety and the American College of Radiology Shellock, F.G. and Crues, J.V. American Journal of Roentgenology White Paper
  • tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)-Induced Skin Burn During MR Imaging Wagle, W.A. and Smith, M. American Journal of Roentgenology: Article
  • Articles on tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul).com, CA lawsuit[3]
  • Article listing inks which may react to MRI[4]
  • American Chemical Society study[5]
  • Washington state OSHA information about HIV in body fluids [6]
  • NIH report on Q-switch and ruby laser removal methods [7]
  • Red Cross Donation Guidelines for recent tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul)s, 2006[8]

Other references

  •   Investigation of pigments in tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) colours Survey no. 2, 2002, Danish Environmental Protection Agency:
  •   Canada to open prison tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) parlors May 4, 2004, CNN.com
  •   tattoo (dövme piercing kadıköy istanbul) FAQ November 22, 2006, Article Dashboard
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